Empowering ourselves by Empowering others
Here at Kanyi Ilanga we specialize in the following:
Harvesting Extraction and short-hauling Gum & Pine
- Felling: Severing the tree from the stump and bringing it to the ground. Severing the tree from the stump is referred to as felling. Historically this was carried out with an axe or bow-saw. The development of the chainsaw increased the efficiency for a person to fell a tree (also called motor-manual felling), and this method still dominant felling method in steeper terrain. On rolling or flat terrain a feller-buncher or a machine with a harvesting head is the most cost-effective method of putting trees on the ground (called mechanized felling)
- Extraction: Pulling the tree from the forest area (or ‘stump’) to a landing or roadside. Pulling the tree from the forest area (or ‘stump’) to a landing is referred to as extraction. When the tree’s are dragged out of the forest it is called skidding, when they are carried out on a trailer (forwarder) it is called forwarding. Any harvesting system that uses an extraction machine that drives into the forest is referred to as ground-based harvesting. By far the most common machine to carry out this task is the grapple skidder or the cable skidder. Forwarders, agricultural tractors, ATV’s and horses are also options for ground-based extraction. When extracting in very wet areas, it is possible to use a shovel, a machine that can lay out corduroy roads and ‘shovel’ the trees to those roads for the skidders. Two special extraction machines are a helicopter (aerial logging) and a yarder (cable logging)
- Processing:Delimbing and topping the tree, and then cutting the stem into logs (‘bucking’). Once the tree is extracted to the landing, it must be processed before loading out onto the truck. This typically involves taking the branches off (delimbing), topping the tree, and then cutting the stem into logs (‘bucking’) according to a certain set of mill specifications. These tasks can be carried out by chainsaw, but in the south this is typically done with a loader that has a pull-trough delimber, or a number of different machines. It is also possible to process the trees ‘at the stump’ and this is typically referred to as a cut-to-length system. If the end use of the majority of the wood is for pulp and paper, the wood may be chipped on site, called an in-woods chipper. To remove the landing residues, either for disposal back on site or for the production of hog-fuel, a grinder can be used.
- Loading: Sort, stack and then load out onto logging trucks. Once the trees have been processed into logs, a loader will help sort, stack and then load out onto logging trucks. Most loaders are trailer-mounted, although they can also be track-based for extra mobility on the landing. The grapple attachment on the knuckle-boom can be fitted with a grapple-saw to help top and buck the trees, and a heel on the boom provides stability. The loader is often involved in at least part of the processing of the logs.
- Trucking: Deliver the logs from the landing to the mill for processing. A vehicle with a log bunk and tractor mounted on the same chassis, used to haul short logs.
Silvi-culture is the science of renewing a forest crop through controlling the stock, density, composition, growth, health and overall quality of a forest stand throughout its lifetime. Including a ranger of activities :
- Stand tending
- Tree harvesting site preperation
- Clear-cut system: refers to a situation whereby all the trees in an entire stand are harvested and new even-aged stands are then regenerated after harvesting within the cleared block by planting, natural regeneration, retention, or advanced regeneration.
- Seed tree system: is managed similarly to a clear-cut system, except a number of trees are left unharvested to supply seed for the next crop. In some cases, natural regeneration may be supplemented with some planting under the seed trees.
- Shelterwood system: is when an old stand of trees is removed in a series of cuttings designed to foster the growth of an even-aged new stand of trees under shelter of the existing one. The old stand of trees serves as a protective shelter for the natural regeneration of a new forest stand.
- Coppice system: is an even-aged silvicultural approach where forest regeneration is carried out through vegetative sprouting of either the existing root system of cut trees (called suckers) or from cut stumps known as shoots. Coppice systems are limited in use to hardwood tree species.
- Patch-cut system: involves removal of an entire stand of trees less than 2.5 acres (1 ha) in size, with each patch being managed separately as an even-aged opening. Forest regeneration is accomplished either naturally, artificially, or a combination of the two.
- Restoration system: is when individual trees or a group of trees are retained to encourage structural diversity over the cutblock area for at least one rotation or cutting cycle
- Selection system: is used to produce uneven-aged stands. Mature timber is harvested in small patches to make room for younger trees and new growth. Trees are harvested on the basis of size and proximity to other trees. This method works well for trees that thrive in the shade.